For the mocha madeleines: In a medium bowl, whisk together the flour, cocoa powder, instant espresso powder, baking powder, and salt. Set aside.
In the bowl of a stand mixer fitted with the whisk attachment, or in a large mixing bowl, if you’re using a hand mixer, beat the eggs and sugar together for 5 minutes until the mixture is pale and thick. Whisk in the vanilla extract.
With the mixer running at slow speed, drizzle the melted butter into the batter, mixing just to incorporate. At low speed, gradually add the dry ingredients, stirring just until no streaks of flour remain. Using a spatula, scrape down the sides and bottom of the bowl to make sure the ingredients are thoroughly combined. Cover the bowl with plastic wrap, or transfer the batter to an airtight container. Refrigerate the batter for at least 2 hours, or for up to 3 days.
About 30 minutes before baking, preheat the oven to 375°F (190°C). Set a rack in the upper third of the oven. Generously grease a madeleine pan with soft (not melted) butter, then lightly dust with cocoa powder, tapping the pan upside down to remove the excess. Place the pan in the freezer.
Fill each shell-shaped cavity with 1 tbsp (15 ml) of batter, or about three-quarters full (using a small ice cream or cookie scoop allows you to quickly go through this step). Place the remaining batter back in the fridge.
Spread a clean kitchen towel flat on the countertop close to the oven. Bake the madeleines for 8 to 10 minutes or until they are puffed and dry at the very top. Unmold the mocha madeleines as soon as you take them out of the oven by turning the pan upside down over the kitchen towel and hitting one side of the pan on the countertop if needed to gently coax uncooperative madeleines out of the pan. Let the mocha madeleines cool for 15 minutes.
Before baking the next batch of madeleines, thoroughly wash the madeleine pan, then butter and dust with cocoa powder again. Place in the freezer at least 10 minutes. Fill the cavities with cold batter, then bake as instructed. Repeat as necessary.
Always serve madeleines at room temperature. Madeleines are best enjoyed freshly baked, but they will also keep in an airtight container at room temperature for up to 3 days.
For the espresso glaze: In a medium bowl, whisk the brewed espresso and instant espresso powder together. Sift in the powdered sugar and whisk until fully combined. The glaze should be loose enough for dipping, but thick enough to coat the madeleines with an opaque layer. If the glaze is too thick, add more brewed espresso. If it’s too thin, add more powdered sugar.
Dip half of each mocha madeleine into the espresso glaze at an angle; let excess drip off by transferring the dipped madeleines to a wire rack. Let rest until the glaze is set, about 30 minutes.
Glazed mocha madeleines can be stored in an airtight container at room temperature for up to 2 days, or in the fridge for up to a week. Make sure to bring the madeleines back to room temperature before serving them.
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